The history of the State
Hydrometeorological Service begins with the first meteorological observations
carried out in Chisinau in 1844. The first hydrological post was organized after
30 years on the Nistru river in Tighina (1878). In the same period there began
the first meteorological observations in five locations: Briceni (1887), Soroca
(1890), Comrat (1892), Ploti (1894) and Tiraspol (1898).
At the end of the XX century there were 11 meteorological stationary posts and 6
hydrological posts. However the observations were not carried out regularly,
being interrupted by the First and Second World Wars.
In October 1944, the Hydrometeorological Department of the Republic of Moldova
was established to ensure regular hydrometeorological observations. Additionally,
the Meteorology Office comprised of hydrological and meteorological forecasting
groups was established within the Department.The Meteorological Office carried
out a fruitful activity in defining the methodology used by the Central
Forecasting Institute (Moscow) and adapted to the local conditions, as well as
elaborated new methodologies. A valuable contribution was made by Mr. P.
Panteleev, who was the head of the Office for a long period of time. At present,
over 10 forecasting methods (downpour, squall, hailstone, storm, etc.) developed
by him are used at local and regional levels. A part of these methods are widely
used both in the Republic of Moldova and outside the country.
The Hydrological forecasting group has developed methods of hydrological
forecasting for the Prut and Nistru rivers. In 1950 the first flood forecast was
issued and the first flood discharge forecast was issued in 1953.
During the post-war period the reconstruction of old stations started, new
stations were established and new observation types elaborated.
In 1946 the first radiosonde was launched in Chisinau.For a long time
atmospheric sounding was made occasionally, but since the upper-air station was
opened in 1957 it became regular.
In 1953 the Hydrological Balance Station was established and in 1957 the
Hydrological Station in Dubasari basin was opened.
In 1954 observations on the radiation background have started.
For agricultural purposes the agrometeorological observation network was
extended, particularly to determine available soil moisture (from 3 posts in
1947 to 24 post in 1963).
In the middle of 50’s the hydrometeorological network has reached its optimal
The hydrometeorological network development had required continuous methodical
guidance and several activities for hydrometeorological data generalization were
carried out. For this purpose the Hydrometeorological Observatory was
established in 1956 (reorganized in Hydrometeorological Centre in 1982). It had
the goal to ensure methodical guidance of observation network, to provide
equipment, develop new observation methods, generalize hydrometeorological data
in monthly reports, yearbooks and guidelines, as well as to carry out scientific
researches. The Observatory published several monographs: “Climate of the
Moldovan SSR”, “Climate of Chisinau”, “Agroclimatic resources of the Moldovan
SSR”, “Agroclimatic reference book of the Moldovan SSR”, “Natural meteorological
hazards in Ukraine and Moldova” (in collaboration with the Geography Institute
of the Moldovan Academy of Science).
Observations conducting, hydrometeorological data assessment and forecasts
development were carried out by high qualified specialists, such as A.
Krivopleas, P. Sineavschi, G. Ceban, G. Bevza, N. Cotova, V. Sivun, G. Lasse, T.
Şevcun, D. Soloviova.
To the establishment and development of the Service actively contributed its
directors – P. Agheev, A. Prihodico, E. Petrov, V. Petrov, A. Kotlearov, V.
Sofroni, V. Cazac.
Environmental pollution monitoring in the Republic of Moldova has started in
1950, by studying the hydrochemical regime of two rivers at 5 posts.
At present the volume of these activities has considerably increased.
Observations by 45 indicators are taken at 32 posts on 13 rivers and 3 basins.
Since 1976 the surface water quality control by 5 hydrobiological indicators has
been carried out. Observations on air pollution started in 1969 at 3 stationary
posts in Chisinau. Initially the number of observed indices was 4 and they
increased to 7 along with the posts. Air pollution forecasts are issued since
Use of chemical products in agriculture preconditioned the need for soil quality
monitoring and pesticide control. The monitoring began in 1976 with
establishment of the laboratories on soil pollution monitoring that nowadays are
widely distributed on the whole territory of the Republic where the chemical
products are used.
The State Hydrometeorological Service (SHS) became independent at the same time
when the Republic of Moldova obtained its independence. In 1994 the
Hydrometeorological Service of the Republic of Moldova joined the World
Meteorological Organization, in 1993 it became member of the Intergovernmental
Council for Hydrometeorology of the Commonwealth of Independent States and
participated in a range of international programs and agreements (UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change, Convention on Co-operation for the Protection and
Sustainable Use of the River Danube, Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air
Pollution, UN Convention to Combat Desertification).
Starting with 2001, in the frame of the governmental program “Modernization of
the country – well-being of the people”, a perspective plan that stipulated
development and strengthening of the State Hydrometeorological Service was
elaborated. To achieve this goal, with the financial aid of the Government and
National Ecological Fund, there were carried out several important activities
for modernization and optimization of the SHS main production departments,
including the National Observational Network. Automatic weather stations for all
the meteorological posts, up-to-date equipment for the hydrological and
hydrochemical posts were acquired.
Social and economical changes impelled the Service to conclude contracts with
commercial organizations and economic agents – potential users of
hydrometeorological information. Marketing studies are being carried out in
order to increase the volume of services rendered and to find efficient and
cost-effective tools to meet users’ demands and needs.